Country: REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN
The Republic of Uzbekistan is the largest country in the region, with the special geographic and geopolitical location in Central Asia and is rich in natural and human resources.
Uzbekistan consists of 12 provinces and autonomous Republic of Qoraqalpoghiston.
The Republic of Uzbekistan declared its Independence and sovereignty on 31 august, 1991 in Tashkent.
The Law on the State Flag of the Republic of Uzbekistan was issued on 18 November, 1991 during the 8th session of Oliy Majlis (the Parliament) of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Symbols of the State Flag of the Republic of Uzbekistan continues the best traditions, peculiar to the flags of the greatest powers, which existed on the territory of our country, at the same time, it reflects natural features of the country, national and cultural originality of the people.
Sky blue color on the flag is the symbol of blue sky and clean water. Azure color is respected on the East, it was selected then by the Great Amir Temur (Tamerlane) for his flag.
White color is the symbol of peace and purity. The young independent state on its way should overcome high mountain passes. So, the white color on the flag means kind wish so that the way be pure and light.
Green color is the embodiment of fertile nature. The growing global movement on environmental protection also has symbol of green color.
Red lines are vital force beating in every living creature, symbol of life.
Crescent corresponds to centuries-old tradition of the people of Uzbekistan. Crescent and stars are the symbols of serene of the world. Our flag has 12 stars. The number 12 is considered to be the sign of sophistication.
The National Emblem
The Law on the National Emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan was issued on 2 July, 1992 during the 10th Session of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
In the centre of the Emblem, there is depiction of the bird Humo (phoenix) with open wings - the symbol of happiness and love of freedom. Our great ancestor Alisher Navoi described Humo as the kindest one out of all lively beings.
The upper part of the Emblem has octahedron, symbolizing the sign of strengthening the country, inside is the crescent with the star.
Depiction of the sun is the wish so the way of our state be illuminated by the bright light. At the same time, it reflects unique natural environment and climate of the country.
Ears are the symbol of lifeblood, stems with opening boxes of cotton is the main wealth of our sunny land, which famed it worldwide. Ears and boxes of cotton, interwoven by the line of the State flag, correspond to the consolidation of the peoples residing in the country.
Access to sea: The country is surrounded by the dry land.
Note: the border crosses Aral Sea (420 km of coastline).
Borders with: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.
Coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00
Landscape. The main part of Uzbekistan is occupied with plains (about four fifth of the total area). And one of the main ones is Turanian plain. To the East and to the North-East of the country are located mountain ranges of the Than-Shang and Pamir, with the highest top of the country 4,643 m. To the North of the Central part of Uzbekistan is located one the largest deserts in the world – Qyzylqum.
Climate is mainly desert-continental. Seasonal temperature difference is significant. Average winter temperature is lower than 6 degrees Centigrade below zero, while average temperature in July is higher than 32 degrees above zero. Number of precipitations is rather small. It’s therefore, that the agriculture mainly depends on irrigation.
Nature of Uzbekistan
Nature of Uzbekistan consists of combination of sub-tropical features with moderate zones.
Land, air, water and fire (sun) have been respected in Central Asia from the times of Zoroastrians calling people in ancient times to care for purity of rivers and abundance of soils.
At present, the majority of rivers of Uzbekistan is drying up, only Amudaryo and Syrdaryo flow into Aral Sea. Uzbekistan has several large artificial lakes, such as Chordara water reservoir.
Glaciers. More than 16 millions square kilometers or 11% of all mainland are occupied by the glaciers. According to scientists, they “contain” more than 27 million cubic km of moisture. If to melt them, the level of the world’s ocean will rise roughly by 66 meters, and the only the waters of the Antarctic glacier with volume equal to roughly 24 million cubic km, are sufficient to supply all rivers of the globe during 830 years. The largest in size glaciers are located in the mountains of Central Asia. The largest ones are Glacier named after Fedchenko (Pamir) and Inilchek (the Eastern part of the Central Than- Shang). Glaciers are natural accumulators and the source of fresh water and, are reputed by right to be the most valuable natural resources. According to experts, only within Uzbekistan are located 547 glaciers with total area of 231 square km. The largest ones are Barkak and Ayutor in Tashkent, the glacier named after Severtsev in Qashqadaryo province. It’s difficult to assess the value of glaciers in supply with water to the rivers of Central Asia – Amudaryo, Zarafshon, Chirchiq, especially in the second half of summer – beginning of fall, when the demands for water are increasingly high. Water in our urban areas, irrigation of gardens, cotton fields, vegetables, rice plantations are all glaciers, invaluable gift of the nature.
Unique world of deserts. The deserts in Uzbekistan occupy huge area. Sandy, loamy, saline land and stony from the first site, they are at the same time sad and lifeless. However, it’s from the first site, for, the unique world of these places is full of life.
Spring is the time of revival of the desert, getting green, the scarlet poppies are shining. Bushes are throwing out their soft colorful petals. Since their life cycle is transiently short, they must grow, blossom, throw down seeds until the summer starts.
Reptiles and rodents wake up after winter inaction. There are a lot of turtles, serpents, lizards, big-eared hedgehogs, toads in Qyzylqums, Ustyurt, in steppes Golodnaya, Farghona valley. There is also giant grey lizard, goitered gazelles, saiga, foxes and wolves, gofers and several varieties of birds which occupy the deserts adapting to its severe environment.
Mountain system. Mountains and foothills comprise about one fifth of the country’s area. In the East, mid and high mountain reliefs prevail: the boundaries of Uzbekistan embrace the slopes or ends of mountain ranges of the Western Than-Shang (Ugam, Pskem, Chotqol, Kurama) and Pamir-Oloy (Zarafshon, Turkiston, Gissar, Kugitangtau, Baysuntau). To the South and West, they gradually descend and change to plains. Among the mountains span quite large trough: Qashqadaryo, Surhondaryo, Zarafshon, Samarqand. The biggest intermountain trough is Farghona hollow (valley) – 370 km, and the width reaches 190 km. It’s framed by the mountain ridges from three sides, and is open only from the West. On the border with Afghanistan is located vast Amudaryo basin.
Natural resources. The Republic of Uzbekistan possesses large production and mineral resource potential, unique agricultural resources, significant volumes of prepared raw materials (semi-finished products), derived as a result of processing, rich natural resources, developed infrastructure.
National Parks of Uzbekistan
In Uzbekistan, there are 13 protected natural territories with total length of 252.5 thousand hectares.
The largest reserves are Miraka and Chotqol;
Mountain forest reserves are Chotqol, Nurota, Qyzylsuv, Miraka, Zomin;
Sandy-deserted reserves are Qorakul, Arnasay, Vardanzin;
Forestlands are Orol-Paighambar, Qyzylqum, Badaytugay, Zarafshon, Abdusamat.
There are the only in the world reserves on breeding goitered gazelles in Jizzakh and Bukhoro provinces.
Population and labor resources
The population of the Republic of Uzbekistan comprises more than 29 million people (as of 1 January, 2013).
On the population, Uzbekistan is the III largest in CIS and, the I largest in Central Asia.
Almost 80% of population of the country is Uzbeks. Uzbekistan is multiethnic country with more than 100 ethnic groups: 5.5% - Russians, 5%-Tajiks, 3%-Kazakhs, 2.5%-Qoraqalpoqs, 1.5% - Tatars, 2.5% - miscellaneous. Religious confessions consist of Muslims (mainly Sunnites)-88%, Orthodox - 9% and miscellaneous (Judaists, Buddhists, Catholics, protestants and others) -3%.
The Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as other Central Asian countries, is remarkable for relatively young population and high share of working age population. The share of people under working age in total number of population is 39%, working age - 54%, above working age - 7%.
Exchange rate of Uzbek Soum vs US $ is 2073.97 (as of the May 2013).
On 1 July, 1994, the National currency Soum was introduced as the only legal tender for all debts within the boundaries of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
1 Soum = 100 tiyins. Notes with face-value of 1000, 500, 200, 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, 3 and 1 Soum. Coins with face-value of 50, 20, 10, 5, 3 and 1 tiyin.
· New Year - 1 January
· International Women’s Day - 8 March
· Festival Navruz - 21 March
· Memorial and Ceremonial Day - 9 May
· Independence Day - 1 September
· Teachers’ and Mentors’ Day - 1 October
· Constitution Day - 8 December
· Iyd-al-Fitr (religious holiday) – date varies
· Iyd-al-Adha (religious holiday) – date varies