The territory of modern Uzbekistan is one of the most ancient cradles of world civilization. Here, from ancient times, emerged powerful state formations replacing each other. It’s the region where East and West came together, their cultures and religions, where great scientist and thinkers lived and created.
Uzbekistan is the country with the richest history. Here emerged and prospered such powerful states as Bactria, Sogdiana, Khorazm, Kushan Kingdom.
In the IV century B.C., Alexander the Great invaded Central Asia, conquered Sogdiana and Bactria, leaving here the tracks of Greek culture.
The Great Silk Road passed through the country. The peak of prosperity of the former falls on the VII-X centuries. Trade routes passed through the pearls of world civilization, which coevals of Rome and Athens – cities Samarqand, Bukhoro and Khiva.
In the VIII century and consequent centuries, Islam and Muslim culture started to rapidly spread in Central Asia.
This period, which entered in to the history as Eastern Renaissance, was noted by the flowering of towns, development of Islamic theology and secular sciences, Muslim architecture and art, about achievement of which we could judge from records and material monuments and sources reaching us.
At that epoch, on our land, outstanding scientists and thinkers lived and created. Their achievements became weighty contribution in development of world civilization:
· Al-Khorazmiy, the founder of modern algebra, the scientist who introduced the notion of algorithm in the science;
· Abu Raihon Beruniy, famous scientist-Encyclopaedist, the author of the works on mineralogy, astronomy and natural sciences;
· Abu Ali Ibn Sino (Avicenna), the greatest scientist – physician, who along with Hippocrate is considered to be forefather of modern medicine, the author of famous Canons of Medical Science;
· Ahmad Al-Farghoniy, the astronomer, mathematician and geographer, who was one of the first to scientifically prove that the Earth has shape of sphere;
· Al-Bukhoriy, the great Muslim scientist-theologian, the author of compilation of righteous Hadeeth.
Prosperity of development of science, architecture, town-planning, literature and art falls on period of rule of Amir Temur, known in the West as Tamerlane, who established powerful state with capital in Samarqand in the XIV century.
During his rule, Amir Temur created favorable environment for development of economy, revived trade routes from China to the Middle East, erected many of the renowned architectural ensembles of Central Asia.
Amir Temur entered in the history of Europe as the rescuer, when it was threatened with conquest by the then Turkish, Osman Empire. Due to the defeat of Osman Army, France set up gold plated statue in his honor.
Ulughbek, the Grandson of Temur, entered in the world history not only as political figure, but also as outstanding scientist and organizer of science. He created largest medieval astronomic observatory and erected the University in Samarqand.
Zahiriddin Mukhammad Bobur, another descendant of Temur, the ruler, warlord and the founder of the state of Great Moguls in India, is known also as the poet and playwright, the author of autobiographic work Bobur-noma.
At the end of the XIX century, as a result of expansion and spread of influence of Russia, Uzbekistan and the other part of Central Asia became part of Russian Empire, and then of the Soviet Union. In 1991, Uzbekistan gained Independence, and in March 1992 became full member of the United Nations Organization.
Uzbekistan possesses large historic and cultural heritage with more than 4,000 historical-architectural monuments. 90% out of those reflect centuries-old history and culture of different religions, primarily of Islam. The most famous of them are located in Samarqand, Bukhoro, Khiva, Shahrisabz and Tashkent.
The monuments of Samarqand are majestic and splendid. More than 20 of them have been recognized to be the greatest achievements of human culture: Registon, Guri-Amir Mausoleum, Bibi-Honum Palace, ensemble of mausoleums Shohi-Zinda, while the historical centre of the city was inscripted into the UNESCO World Heritage List(2001).
Many unique ancient monuments have been preserved in blessed Bukhoro, rich cultural heritage of which for many centuries fascinated the whole world. Architectural facilities of the city have been well kept till our days, and represent universal values.
Khiva is one few towns of the world where practically was kept historical building up, in its essence, it’s museum-town under open sky, which is at least 2500 years old. Ichan Qala, the internal part of the town, is historical monument of universal value, where palaces, mosques, madrasahs, mausoleums and minarahs are compacted.
The City of Tashkent, the capital of modern Uzbekistan, is one the largest ones in Central Asia. Tashkent is rich in archeological monuments, with total number of more than 240. In 2007, the International Islamic Organization on Education, Science and Culture of the Organization of Islamic Conference (ISESCO) announced Tashkent to be the capital of Islamic Culture. In 2009, as it was set in Resolution of the 34th Session of the UNESCO General Conference, the world community celebrated 2200 Jubilee of the city of Tashkent. Today, Tashkent, called by right, the Gates of the East, is the largest political, business, cultural and scientific centre of the whole Central Asian region. Population of Tashkent is 2.7 million people.