Uzbekistan pays great attention to education of population.
Annually, about 53% of state budget is appropriated for further improvement of education system in the country.
Uzbek national education model includes all stages of education and upbringing of personality, preschool education, primary and secondary education, vocational education, higher education, raising skills/training and further education.
The country carries targeted activity for basic and professional education of talented children and youth overseas.
Since the very day of Independence of Uzbekistan, thousands of young people have undergone courses on different prestigious programs or have been educated in solid universities abroad.
Sources of science of
Such great scientists as Ahmad Al-Farghoniy, Abu Raikhon Beruniy, Abu Ali Ibn Sino, Mukhammad Al-Khorazmiy, Mirzo-Ulughbek, who originated from Central Asia, in medieval ages made great contribution in development of such sciences as astronomy, geography, geology, geophysics, mineralogy, pharmacology, botanic, anatomy, human physiology, medicine, chemistry, physics, metaphysics.
Sector of scientific research of Uzbekistan includes 362 academic, university and industrial-profile institutes, that includes 101 scientific-research institutes, 55 scientific-research subdivisions of universities, 65 design & engineering institutions, 32 scientific-production associations and experimental enterprises, 30 data processing centers.
The Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan have conducted and is successfully continuing researches of unique scientific centers, such as Institute of Nuclear Physics, Institutes of Genetics and Experimental Biology, Scientific Production Association of Solar Physics, Astronomic Observatory of top level on the mountain Maidanak and others.
Education system in the country
Thus, while in 1991 - 1997, the country envisaged only 9 years compulsory education, now, the Law on Education and the National Human Resources Development Program of Uzbekistan envisage consequent compulsory 3 years vocational training or academic education.
Extension of compulsory education for 3 years, has invaluable, long-term impact. It’s also important that already today, the graduates of 9th grades without exception are entitled to continue education by the age of 17-18 under state financing.
Key principles of reforms in education:
- introduction of compulsory 12 years education, including 9 years general education and 3 years vocational or academic education, also represents formation of the system of further education: from the age of 4 or 5 – preschool education, 6 or 7 - compulsory 9 years school education, 14 or 15 - 3 -years pre higher educational institution, academic or vocational education. Higher education also became two stages baccalaureate and magistracy, which open way to university institutions – post-graduate or doctoral studies. Besides, the system of continuing retraining and raising the level of skills is being formed.
In due course, quality content of the process of education and curricula were significantly modified with the aim at:
-maximum approximation to the needs of the market economy;
-restoration of historical values, abandoned cultural and spiritual traditions of the people, populating
-new style of education must consider the best teaching techniques, which ensure high level of requirements to knowledge of pupils/students and educating of diploma holders on maximum high professional level for participation in quiet saturated labor market.
Provision of partially paid education:
-preschool – creation of private kindergartens (in parallel with state);
-school – creation of private paid (commercial) schools, accredited in compliance with current legislation;
- higher education – through admission of students on paid (commercial)-contractual basis.
By the end of 2009, this program envisaged creation of 1,374 vocational colleges and 131 academic lyceums for more than 920,000 seats.
In 1997, on the initiative and direct involvement of the President of
The process of practical implementation of the National Human Resource Development Program is carried out in three Phases:
I Phase (1997-2001) –reforming the system of human resource development under preservation of available potential, creation of legal, career, science, technique, financial and material basis for its further development;
II Phase (2001-2005) – broad implementation of the National Program and improvement in the context of accumulated experience, tendencies of development of labor market and specific socio-economic environment;
III Phase (2005 and consequent years) – on the basis of analysis and synthesis of accumulated experience- improvement and further development of the human resource development system in compliance with perspectives of the country.
Today, as a result of consistent implementation of provisions of the National Program, the country has formed National model of human resource development, which includes the following components: personality– state and society-continuing education-science-production.
The current complete system of continuing education of
Higher education provides education of highly qualified professionals.
Higher education of professionals is carried out at higher educational institutions (universities, academies, institutes and other educational institutions of higher school) on the basis of secondary special, vocational training.
Higher education has two levels: baccalaureate and magistracy, certified by the documents on higher education of state standard.
Baccalaureate is basic higher education with fundamental knowledge of one of areas of higher education with apprenticeship of at least 4 years.
Magistracy is higher education on specific major with apprenticeship of at least 2 years on the basis of baccalaureate.
The citizens are entitled to get second and further higher education on contractual basis.
For the years of
The universities established in cooperation with the leading foreign higher educational institutions have made progress in letting out its first graduates. Today, the graduates of
Special stipends, remunerations and grants
State stipends of the President of the
State stipends of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan are granted to the graduate students (separately for baccalaureate and magistracy) of public higher educational institutions- citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan as of the results of competition in 11 areas (agriculture and water resources; technology and informatics; health care and social protection; public-humanitarian and social sciences; natural sciences; business and management; pedagogy; culture, art and sport; foreign languages; law and international relations; journalism), organized by the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
State stipends named after Beruniy, Ibn Sino, Navoi, Ulughbek and Imom Al-Bukhoriy are granted to the baccalaureate graduate and undergraduate students of public higher educational institutions of the
Post Higher Educational Institution Education
One of the most important components of the mechanism on creation of all necessary conditions for broad attraction of the youth to scientific activity is organizing works on educating of scientific and scientific-pedagogic staff of top qualification in the system of continuing education. Education of scientific-pedagogic staff is carried out through postgraduate and doctoral courses, as well as in the form of competition in accordance with the Laws On Education, National Human Resource Development Program and Regulation on Postgraduate (Doctoral) Studies.
For strengthening the mechanisms of material motivation of educating scientific-pedagogic staff, the current Regulation on Postgraduate (Doctoral) Studies, in particular, envisages: lump-sum incentive (fivefold stipends) for the postgraduate (doctoral) student, who defends his/her thesis before schedule; financial encouragement (three fold monthly salary) for the supervisor (advisor) of the postgraduate (doctoral) student, who defends his/her thesis before schedule; twofold increase of the hours, designated to the supervisor (advisor) of the postgraduate (doctoral) student, in total volume of annual academic load (100 hours versus 50 postgraduate (doctoral) student, and 50 versus 25 on independent competitors.
With aim at increase of current scientific potential, creation of conditions for rejuvenation of the corps of the scientific and scientific-pedagogical staff of top qualification (candidates and doctors of sciences), number of incentives on strengthening of financial motivation of the work of the scientists (supervisors and advisors) and competitors is envisaged. In particular, it’s envisaged: possibility of reduction of down to 25 % of teaching load of professors-teachers, achieving high feedback in educating candidates and doctors of sciences as their supervisors and advisors with preservation of total annual load of 1540 hours; financial encouragement (up to 40 fold minimum salary) of supervisors (advisors) for timely defense by their postgraduate (doctorate) students of candidate’s (doctoral) thesis; possibility of up to full exemption from teaching part of the work load with preservation of total annual volume of load of 1540 hours of persons, finalizing their thesis current year; reduction by up to 25 % of teaching part of the load of female professors-teachers, completing at least 50 % of their thesis and actively working on completion, with preservation of total annual volume of load of 1540 hours.
With aim at deserved reward and further raising of the prestige of scientific-creative activity among the public, regular competitions of scientific works of talented students, postgraduates and doctorates are organized. In particular, final stage of the competition of the scientific works of talented students was held in 2007, in
In the system of higher education active, work is carried out on detection of the most talented students of the baccalaureate and magistracy, attaching to them supervisors out of the scientist with notable experience in educating scientific staff, as well as approval of the topics of candidates’ and doctors’ thesis of young competitors and implementation of plans of their targeted individual education as scientific and scientific-pedagogical staff. Based on all this, it became possible to design prospective plan on education of scientific and scientific-pedagogical staff in higher educational institutions by 2015.