1. Geographical location, territory, climate
Kashkadarya province is located in the Southern part of
Kashkadarya province is located on same geographic latitude as
Total area of the province amounts to 28.6 thousand square meters (6.3% of the territory of Uzbekistan), which is comparable with the territories of such countries as Belgium, Albania or Armenia.
The province consists of 13 administrative districts: Guzar, Dehkanabad, Karshi, Koson, Kamashi, Kitab, Kasbi, Mubarek, Nishan, Mirishkor, Chirakchi, Shakhrisabz and Yakkabog. Administrative center is the city of Karshi with a population of more than 180 thousand people.
On the North, the province borders with Samarqand province, on the North-West – with Bukhoro province, on the East and South-East – Surhandaryo province. From the North-East part passes the state border with Tadjikistan, on the Western part with
Population of the province as of 1st of January of 2008 is 2516,1 ths. people. Density of population is 91,8 people per one square kilometer.
The climate is continental, dry, somewhere is subtropical, favorable for land cultivation and cattle breeding. The average annual temperature is +
The average annual quantity of precipitations are 187-
2. Historical excursus
The history of Kashkadarya province contains multitude of remarkable events. It’s the history of courageous people, loving its motherland.
Located between the rivers Zarafshan and Amudaryo, the territory in ancient times according to chronicles of Ancient Greece and
In II-I millennium B.C. in this territory the culture was developed, people conducted a settled way of life.
The discoveries which were found on the territories of ancient cities and barrows as Navtak – Yerkurgan, Kesh, Iskifagi, Subah, Bazda, Kalandartepa, Kamaytepa, Altintepa testifies that their residents were engaged in agriculture and animal breeding, pottery, processing of iron and other crafts. Pottery was developed at a high level, iron melting was developed out even B.C.
In the shelter places, where agriculture and crafts had risen, the cities formed, in which culture and architecture were developed, madrassas, mosques and caravanserais were erected.
This region, which has beautiful nature and rich in natural resources attracted the attention of many foreign invaders and endured the invasion of Alexander the Macedonian, Mongolian campaign and Achaemenids rule. This region was at the epicenter of the local population revolts against foreign invasions: under the leadership of Spitamen against Alexander the Macedonian in 329 BC, Khashim ibn Khakim (Mukanna) against the Arab Caliphate in the 70's and 80's of VIII century.
Shakhrisabz City (from Persian. شهر سبز (Šahr-e Sabz) - «green city») of Kashkadarya Province was a home to Amir Temur (Tamerlane), which unyoked the country from Mongolians, and founded the great empire of Tamerlane, which included whole territory of the Middle East from the Mediterranean to northern India besides Central Asia.
During this period the science and culture was developed, scientists and poets as Najmiddin Nasafi, Abu Makhul an-Nasafi, Shakhabiddin Nasafi, Abul Barakot an-Nasafi, Abul Kharis Varsini, Mustagfiri an-Nasafi and others lived and created.
In Shahrisabz Amir Temur had built Ak-Sarai – huge palace that was its residence in XIV — the beginning of XV centuries. Unfortunately, by the end of XVII century this magnificent building was partially destroyed. But the remained parts of a portal testify the scale of its construction, Ak-Sarai has so far unsurpassed mosaic patterns reflecting a high level of art of that time.
After an era of Temurids province have conquered by Shaibaneeds - the new dynasty formed from settled and nomadic Uzbek tribes. The long period followed after that has been marked by internal wars, invasions and campaigns from the neighboring states, influenced negatively on development of economy and culture of the province.
The Kashkadarya province has been organized in 1924, and from 1927 to 1964 entered again into structure of
From 1986 to 1989
3. Social and economic development
By the end of 2010 the total provinceal GDP of the Kashkadarya province has 4865,1 billion sum.
Structure of provinceal GDP as compare with 2009 looks as follows:
industrial production – 101,5%,
agriculture – 120,5%,
construction – 140,2%,
trade and (public) catering – 132,2%.
The population of the province is 2668,8 thousand people. Density of population is 93,3 people per one square kilometer.
The population mainly consists of Uzbeks. There is also inhabitance of more than 90 nations and nationalities, including Russians, Tajiks, Turkmens, Tatars, Kazakhs and others. Numberofable-bodiedpopulationis 1476.3 thousandpeople. 971.6 thousandofthoseareemployed.
The largest cities: Shahrisabz, Kitab, Koson, Muborak, Yakkabogh, Guzar, Qamashi. The province has 13 administrative districts: Guzar, Shahrisabz, Dehqonobod, Qarshi, Koson, Qamashi, Kitab, Kasbi, Muborak, Chiroqchi, Nishon, Yakkabogh, Mirishkor.
3.2. Development in agricultural sector
The economy of the Province is focused on agriculture. The share of agricultural production in the gross provincial product is more than 27,3%. The gross agricultural output of the province is 1329,7 billion soums. (USD 791,5 mln.).
The natural and climatic conditions of the region are associated with a higher average temperature than in other areas. Long duration of the warm season and fertile soil allow to grow heat-loving subtropical crops - late-staple fine-fibre varieties of cotton, persimmons and sugar cane.
If the total land area of the province is 2,857 thousand ha,
The most important branches of agriculture are rainfed and irrigated grain growing as well as distant (pasture) sheep breeding.
Natural conditions of the province are favorable for grape, stone fruit, figs and pomegranate growing. Karshi grapes, especially the sort of "Mask", is famous for its taste.
Sericulture is also developing in the province along with the cotton growing. The province takes one of the leading places in karakul breeding. Expansion of pastures, increase of corn and alfalfa, the increasing use of industrial wastes contribute to the further development of livestock sector.
The main branch of livestock sector is karakul growing, which is developed mainly in the western, southwestern and central districts. Fat-tailed sheep and goats that provide wool and meat are contained in the pastures of northern and north-eastern foothills and mountainous areas. Semi-fine-fleece sheep and long-wooled goats are grown in the foothills and plains for the development of productive animal husbandry. The number of cattle is enough to meet the demand of the province’s population for dairy products.
3.3. Mineral and raw materials potential
The region accounts for 98% gas and more than 80% of oil produced in
There are considerable explored reserves of potash and rock salt, marble, claydite, pyroshale, coal, lead, zinc, cement raw materials and other minerals for construction materials production. Yakhton tungsten deposit and Dautash manganese deposit are among the most promising fields. Also, prospective ore deposits of gold, copper, aluminum, antimony and mercury were identified in the province.
There are 61 deposit of ore and nonmetallic minerals in the
- manganese 813.4 thousand tons;
- quartzite - 1735.4 thousand cubic metre;
- porcelain stone – 853.9 thousand tons;
- pegmatite – 1617.1 thousand tons;
- marble – 2.7 million tons;
- dolomite – 10.0 million tons;
-limestone – 8.9 million tons;
- building stones – 5.9 million cubic metre;
- cement raw material – 265.5 million tons;
- glass raw material - more than 10.0 million tons.
3.4. Industrial potential
The province accounts for 13% of the republic’s industrial production.
In the Province operate about 150 industrial enterprises, including 45 large enterprises in oil-and-gas, in light industry, food-processing industry, mechanical engineering, building materials industry. Most of them are the enterprises in oil-and-gas, cotton-cleaning, building, and also in the light and local industries.
The largest of them are Shurtan Gas Chemical Complex, Mubarek Oil and Gas Department, Mubarek Oil Refinery, JV «
Oqsaroy Tukimachi» JV «Cotton Road», «Shakhrisabz» wine and alcohol plant, Shakhrisabz cannery, JV «Karshi oil-extraction plant», JV «Kasan oil extraction plant» and others.
Commissioning of the first block of Tolimarjon 800 MW Power Plant in 2004, solved the energy supply issue in the region.
Kashkadarya is the main fuel and energy base of the republic, giving more than 90 percent of natural gas condensate and oil produced in the country.
In 2001, Shurtan Gas Chemical Complex – the largest gas processing enterprise was put into operation. Construction of the complex was carried out with the assistance of a consortium of foreign companies such as ABB Lummus Global (USA), ABB Soimi (
Currently Shurtan Complex is focused on the followings: natural gas processing with ethylene production, co-monomer and polyethylene production with Sclairtech technology. Production capacity of the complex consists of the followings: processing of about 4 billion cubic meters of natural gas, production of 125 thousand tons of various sorts of polyethylene of low and high density, 137 thousand tons of liquefied gas and 37 thousand tons of gas condensate, about 4 thousand tons of sulfur. "Thermoplastic" plant in Karshi produces modern polyethylene pipes for water and gas supply on the basis of products of Shurtan complex .
There is a Mubarek Gas Processing Plant with capacity of 30 billion cubic meters of gas annually in the province, which accounts for much of the processed gas in the country, about 17% of stable gas condensate and 11% of liquefied gas. Currently reconstruction works underway in the company, a propane-butane mixture installation is being constructed for liquefied natural gas production.
Today tens of modern textile enterprises for yarn, knit and fabric production are operating in the province.
The main enterprises are: JV «Cotton Road», «Oqsaroy-Tukimachi», «Yakkabagtex». JV «Cotton Road» manufactures 920 tons of yarn, 5.0 million pieces of knitwear annually, and «Oqsaroy-Tukimachi» produces 4800 tons of yarn, 2000 tons of knitwear and JV «Yakkabagtex» produces 3000 tons of yarn annually. Bulk of the products is export-oriented
3.5. Transport infrastructure
In ancient times the Great Silk Road passed through the territory of current
In Kashkadarya the traffic accomplishing by railway, automobile and aviation mode of transport.
Throughout the territory of the province passes railway communication which connect
For the economic development of the province the important role play the promotion of its export potential the construction of railway Toshguzar- Boysun – Kumurgan with the general extension of
With the commissioning of this railway in August 2007, the province began to serve as a main transit for cargo to
Highways, including those of international and regional importance, total length of which is about
Province’s pipeline of
Regular flights to
3.6. Social infrastructure and recreation services
Kashkadarya province has 1117 comprehensive schools, 7 academic lyceums, 130 colleges and 3 high educational institutions which produce qualified cadres. 121 Palace of Cultures, 4 theatres, 6 culture and recreation parks, 102 hospitals, and there are sanatoriums, vacation houses operate in Province.
Special attention pays for improvement knowledge and raise culture of population. Especially, the information resource center, 160 culture institutions function in the province.
The special attention pays for development of physical culture and sport. There are 20 stadiums, 815 sports halls, 7 swimming pools, 4781 sport grounds, where more than 666,1 thsd. people go in for sports per a day and other sport institutions.
Currently in the province operates:
- in Kitab 3 sanatorium, 4 child health-improving camps;
- in Shakhrisabz 1 rest home, 7 child health-improving camps;
- in Yakkabag 9 child health-improving camps.
Within Kashkadarya province independent tourist trips are possible: pedestrian, water, cycling, automobile, motorbike.
The popular international tourist objects besides monuments of Shakhrisabz, is Sultan Mir Khaydar - the architectural complex of ancient mausoleum and mosque in the village Kasbi.
About 15 historical monuments of XV - XVI centuries are preserved in the administrative center of the area - the city of
The second largest city in the province - Shakhrisabz is world renown for being the birthplace of Amir Temur. The Great Silk Road passed through the city. The architectural monuments built by Amir Temur and his grandson Ulughbek attract the attention of tourists.
In addition, Shakhrisabz is one of the oldest centers of crafts. Gold-woven skullcap embroidered here won gold medals in international exhibitions in
In the foothills of Kashkadarya – Kitab, Shakhrisabz, Yakkabag, Dekhkanabad, Chirakchi, Kamashi, natural conditions and a favorable climate allow to develop eco-tourism, there are health centers, sanatoriums and rest homes there.
4. Foreign investments in the region
In 2010 the province attracted USD 304.6 million of FDI for implementation of 54 projects in such sectors as oil and gas, agriculture, light industry, services and other industries.
For foreign investments in the Republic of Uzbekistan there have been set national treatment, which grants foreign investment the terms not less favorable than the corresponding conditions for investments by domestic individuals and legal entities.
Enterprise attracting direct private foreign investment and located in Kashkadarya Province, as well as carrying out activities in the following sectors: radio-electronical industry, production of computer components and computer engineering, light industry, silk industry, construction materials, industrial production of poultry and eggs, food processing, meat and dairy industry, chemical and pharmaceutical industries are exempt from operating activities income (profit) tax, property tax, social infrastructure and territories’ face-lift tax, the single tax for microfirms and small enterprises, as well as compulsory contributions to the Republican Road Fund.
These tax credits are available for private foreign direct investment.
At the same time these tax credits are applied in the following conditions:
- Private FDI is made by foreign investor without warranty of
- The share of foreign participants in the charter capital of the enterprise must be at least 50 percent;
- Contributing the private FDI after the state registration of the enterprises;
- Foreign investment in the form of freely convertible currency or new equipment;
- Income received as a result of providing these benefits for the duration of their use, is re-invested to further development of the company.