City of Toshkent
1. Geographical location. Territory.
Tashkent city is the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is located in the northeastern part of the country, in the Valley of Chirchik River, at an altitude of 440-480 m above sea level. The city territory is 335 square kilometers. The city itself has the highest economic, scientific and cultural potential in the country.
Tashkent is a political and economic center of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Here, the residence of the President, the Legislative Chamber of Oliy Majlis, the Senate of Oliy Majlis, Cabinet of Ministers, embassies of foreign states, public organizations, and also central administrative boards of all ministries and departments are located.
The city structure includes 11 districts: Bektemir, MirzoUlugbek, Mirabad, Sabir - Rakhimov, Sergeli, Uchtepa, Hamza, Chilanzar, Shaikhantakhur, Yunusabad, Yakkasaray.
2. Historical excurse
Scientists consider the age of Tashkent as twenty-five centuries - from the first few settlements to the modern metropolis, with its high-rise buildings, crowded avenues and streams of cars. When you approach the city at night, the glow of the lights occupy the half of the sky.
Tashkent is mentioned in Avesta and in ancient Chinese sources. It emerged in the valley of Chirchik River, on the border of the oasis and steppe as a meeting place for farmers and pastoralists, settled population and nomads for joint trade. The place appeared to be so successful that the city has survived, despite all the trials - wars, invasions and sieges. In the ancient chronicles it was known under the names of Yuni, Chach, Shash. According to Biruni and MahmoudKashgariy, the name of Tashkent appeared in the Turkic sources of IX - XII centuries. The city has always been a bridge between East and West, North and South countries. The advantageous geographical position and favorable climate made Tashkent one of the main essential points for a trade route of the Silk Road in ancient times.
The destiny of Tashkent was often dramatic. Being a rich trading city, it was constantly under attack of stronger neighbors and it rarely belonged to itself. In the VII century Tashkent was the "summer" capital of the Western Turkic khanate, in the VIII century it was destroyed by the Arabs, but was revived, and at the beginning of the XIII century the city was taken into possession by Khorezm Shah Muhammad, who then left it to Kuchliku Khan. In the XIV century Tashkent was a part of the Temur Empire, who consigned it to his grandson Ulugbek. In the XVI century the city belonged to the Sheybanids, and in the next century it was captured by Imam Quli Khan of Bukhara, who left his deputy there to govern. At the beginning of the XIX century Tashkent got into possession of Kokand ruler Alim Khan. And in the same century the city was included into the Russian Empire and became the administrative and political center of Turkestan. And finally, in the twentieth century Tashkent endured the Soviet regime and became a full-time capital of Uzbekistan - the sovereign and independent state.
Finally, Tashkent was born under a lucky star. The city lives and grows, constantly expanding its borders. If in the middle of the ÕIÕ there were about 100 thousand inhabitants, in the beginning of theÕÕI, their number amounted to more than 2.5 million.
In the twentieth century the city throughout one generation experienced two critical events. The first was the destructive earthquake of 1966 which put an end to the old one-storied Tashkent. The monument "Courage" reminds of it, which was set in the epicenter of the earthquake. Now only "islands" of the old buildings have remained.
Declaration in 1991 of the independence of the republic became another event which has changed not only the appearance of the capital, but also of the whole country. The high-rise buildings of glass and metal, stacked overpasses, new parks, museums, fountains - Tashkent is rapidly becoming a modern developed international megalopolis.
A new architectural image of the capital city has been formed. Preserving the national traditions of architecture, new buildings are erected here, which don not concede to the world's urban development patterns.
The contemporaries call the Uzbek capital as the "The star of the east" and "Messenger of Peace", these names are harmoniously combined with the very essence of the city, more than twenty centuries symbolically lighting up the life of their citizens and road travelers.
2.1. Tourist potential
Tashkent - one of the largest cities in Central Asia - the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Tashkent is mentioned as the city settlement for the first time in the ancient chronicles of IIBC. In the Chinese sources, it was called Yuni; in the inscriptions of the 262 BC of Persian King Shapur I in the "Kaaba of Zoroaster", Tashkent oasis was called Chach. Chach was a crossroad for the export of gold, precious stones, spices and splendid horses to other cities and states. Tashkent (in Uzbek, "StoneCity"), the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan, carefully keeps the evidences of the past and the memory of many events of the history of the ancient land of Uzbekistan.
Tashkent will leave no one to be indifferent, even the most tempted travelers. The visit to this ancient and at the same modern city time will leave a truly lasting impression. Tashkent is rich with beautiful Islamic architectural buildings, madrasas, mosques, museums and libraries, which are carefully preserved for future generations and which wait for a meeting with you.
This lovely city will give you an excellent opportunity to see all sides of the past and present ancient city that never stops amazing with its architectural monuments, the heritage of great scientists, calligraphers and artists, libraries and museums that hold the treasures of spiritual and material life of the people. It is worth to mention the historical museums such as the Uzbek Museum of Arts, which contains more than 4000 items (including artifacts of Sogdian period, Buddhist statues dating back more than a thousand years, and ritual objects of Zoroastrianism), and the Museum of History of Uzbekistan. Perhaps the most magnificient and richly decorated city museum - The Museum of the History of Timurids (AmirTimurMuseum), is in the center of the city. You should visit it without doubts. To be in Tashkent and not to visit the AmirTimurMuseum are considered as a bad manner. It is also extremely interesting to visit the old part of Tashkent - Eski Shahar. Despite the strong earthquakes, constantly occurring in this seismically active area, many old buildings and streets have remarkably well remained.
The crowded market Chorsu in front of the Kukeldash madrassas, is not simply largest and richest shopping centre of a city, but also the embodiment of all the legends of the Ancient East. So-called Tashkent Chimes - beautiful building, located in the center of the residence of Prince Rakhmanov (1869-90 gg.). It is a clock tower, which copies the famous Spassky tower of Moscow Kremlin. "Tashkent Chimes" - a monument, inherited from Tashkent General Governorship, the time when Uzbekistan was a part of the Russian Empire. In 2009, there was a reconstruction of the monument, at the same time with which the famous Clock Tower had a twin. To its 2200th anniversary, Tashkent has got one Clock Tower, which has been erected nearby the present clock close to the Palace of forums. New set of chime looks identical to the present one, but it is deployed in the opposite direction.
Today the capital of Uzbekistan - the largest cultural center of not only the country but also of all Central Asia. Conservatory, 9 theaters (including the world famous Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre), concert and exhibition halls, stadiums, swimming pools, libraries, parks, flowering gardens and fountains ( are a rare phenomenon in these droughty areas, constructed with a large architectural and engineering perfection), do not leave anyone indifferent. A TashkentTelevisionTower - the tallest building in Central Asia (height - 375 meters).
There is a wide network of cultural institutions in the city: the numerous theaters, museums, concert halls and libraries. The appearance of city has considerably changed over the past few years. The broad highways, avenues which are decorated with new buildings, fountains and monuments are laid.
The visitors of Tashkent admire modern architectural ensembles, as well as ancient monuments and original bazaars - the characteristic sights of the city.
3. Social infrustructure, markets, shops, recreational services
106 branches of 27 commercial banks (of which 20 are branches of the national central institutions and the Tashkent offices, 6 offices in Tashkent province and 80 branches) function in Tashkent. For convenience in securing the population and clients of commercial banks with banking services, in addition, 5 branches, 57 and 74 are specialized Minibank payment points have been created.
Radical reforms were undertaken in the sphere of higher special education, the transition to the European system of bachelor's and master's degrees. Today, about 300 thousand students in 850 fields and specialties are trained in 65 universities of the country.
In Tashkent, the branches of foreign universities are opened and function: the International Westminster University (2002), the Singapore Institute of Management Development (2007), a branch of the Moscow State University (2006), a branch of the Russian Economic Academy named after G.V Plehanov (1995), a branch of the Turin Polytechnic Institute (2009), the only Institute in the Central Asian countries s that train specialists in the electrical and mechanical engineering industries.
If traveling through the different countries of the world is the best way to discover their essence, a stop in a bazaar to let yourself be carried away by the display of noises, aromas and colors will always be an important goal for travelers, for those who want to get involved in the hustle and bustle in order to glimpse the roots of the society that surrounds them, as well as for those who are content to enjoy the bazaar as a purely aesthetic experience, an authentic gift for the senses.
Uzbek markets are a reflection of the ancient traditions and custom of the local people. They reflect the complex, dynamic process in which, as well as goods, people, knowledge, values, ideas and tastes have circulated.
Located in the center of Tashkent, Alayskiy Bazaar (Oloy Bozori) was set up 150 years ago in the New Town. It is the most up-to-date, equipped and advanced bazaar in the city. Standing under the huge shelter, the bazaar's rows of stalls stretch as far as the eye can see. Alayskiy Bazaar deals almost exclusively in choice fruit and vegetables.
The types of products on sale at Alayskiy Bazaar are practically the same as those you will see at other bazaars, however Alayskiy Bazaar is still unique.
Chorsu (Eski Juva) Bazaar
EskiJuva bazaar is the biggest and oldest, not only in Uzbekistan but in the whole of Central Asia. This bazaar is located in the very heart of the so called OldTown of the capital, next to Chorsu square. For hundreds of years, this place was the crossroad of eastward, westward, southward and northward caravan routes, used for carrying goods into and out of Tashkent. It was called Chorsu - 'a crossroad'.
In the 1980s Eski Juva was reconstructed. Today, the stalls of the ancient bazaar stand under seven huge domes covered with colored glazed tiles. As you enter the biggest domed building, a cloud of spice aromas envelopes you. What abundance! There is saffron and brown tree bark, red and black pepper, thyme and cloves, nutmeg, cardamom… - over 60 varieties of spices and cooking herbs.
On a scorching sunny day, one is irresistibly drawn to immerse oneself in the nearest body of cool water! Fulfilling this need is easy, without leaving the comfort of the Capital city. The modern "Aquapark" entertainment complex, in the heart of Tashkent, offers an excellent opportunity for a variety of fun activities on the water!
In the very heart of Tashkent, behind the International Business Centre which is next to the Hotel InterContinental you may quite unexpectedly discover a beauty spot of nature - a unique 'Japanese garden'.
On a journey through the garden one must necessarily make a stopover at the teahouse. Next to its entrance there is a national Japanese drum and you must rotate it so that the Gods should hear you.
Zoological park of Tashkent - the biggest in Central Asia. The Tashkent Zoo was founded in 1924 on the basis of the small menagerie which existed at that time at an art museum on the territory of a former country summer estate of the governor general, at the initiative of scientific biologists. By the end of the 1940s construction of the Tashkent Zoo had been completed.
In 1997, after opening the new Zoo, the quantity of animals totaled 85 species. In the year 2004, this number has increased to 349 (nearly 3000 individual animals). One feature of the new Zoo is its sea aqua systems in the Aquarium. In the sea aqua systems, you can view sea animals: sharks, murens, fish, polyps, etc..
Tashkent Lake side Golf Club
Golf, deeply revered in Western Europe and America with many adherents who make it their way of life, is becoming more and more popular in Uzbekistan. A perfectly organized a golf country club and first class golf course has now been created in Tashkent, where high level competitions are often held.
Ideal climate, clean air, wonderful views, natural landscapes - hilly lowlands, fields crossed with the tree lines, lakes and vegetation makes for this. 108 hectares of land with 18 holes on evergreen lawns, with gently sloping hills and branchy crowns of trees, lakes and waterfalls that serve as natural barriers for the game, all this pertains to "Tashkent Lake Side Golf Club".
Monuments of Mustakillik (Independence) Square
On the largest square of the Republic of Uzbekistan sit the administrative headquarters of the Cabinet of Ministers and Senate.
In the past few years Mustakillik Square, thanks to extensive reconstruction projects, has changed immensely, not only in style but in meaning. It remains the most important square in the country, a symbol of freedom and independence, and a place of worship, where the hopes and dreams of our generation are expressed.
The entrance to Mustakillik Square is through the Ezgulik decorated archway (the arch of good and noble aspirations) adorned with sculptures of storks taking flight. Bearing in mind their most intimate desires, all passing under the arch are ushered into the center of Mustakillik Square, where the IndependenceMonument rises. "The concepts of "independence" and "humanitarianism" are expressed by our most precious achievement, the greatest wealth, we must keep as the apple of our eye and convey to future generations!" - said President of Uzbekistan I. Karimov, placing a wreath at the foot of the monument. It consists of two sites – “Independence” and “Happy Mother”.
The Monument of Independence (1991), which marks the sovereignty of Uzbekistan, is a large golden globe with outlines of the borders (territorial) of the State.
The “Happy Mother” monument (2006) was completed by the sculptor, Ilhomom Kamolom Dzhabbarovymi. The image symbolizes a mother's homeland, and a child - the image of the future. The monument is simple, but solemn.
The main wealth of the state and its future is the younger generation. But a country without a history has no future. Simply knowing this, and respecting their predecessors, the younger generation will be able to build a new society. Not surprisingly,
Mustakillik Square has another memorial dedicated to those who never returned from the fields of World War II. Near an eternal flame are tragic figures of bereaved mothers who look to the fronts of the war and await their children. More than a million Uzbek fell in battle. Their names are inscribed in golden letters, "memorial books", located here.
The population of Tashkent city is more than 2.7 million people. Representatives of more than 100 different nations and ethnic groups live in peace in Tashkent.
The climate in Tashkent is subtropical- continental, but the amount of precipitation, compared with the low-lying semi-desert and desert areas, owing to the close location of the mountains here is quite significant. Frosts are usually quite short, but during the shiny days the temperature sometimes drops to minus 20 ° C and below, in summer the temperature often reaches 35-40 ° C in the shade, the minimum temperature is 29, 5 °.
3.3. Social-economic development
The growth rate of major economic indicators in 2009 (compared to 2008) remained high, with a gross regional product amounted to 8502.8 billion soums, the growth rate of 113%.
The growth rate in the industry amounted to 110.2% (4,414.9 billion soums), consumer goods production - 111% (1941.8 billion soums) of investments - 102.7% (2,007.7 billion sums), rental services and construction - 114.9% (1,124.7 billion soums), retail trade - 117.4% (4,454.5 billion soums), services - 116.6% (8,187.6 billion soums), exports of goods and services - 110% (3428.6 million U.S. dollars). The growth of these indicators has contributed to economic growth of the city.
Such sectors of the economy such as industry have a significant impact on the growth of gross regional product (GRP) - 4,1%, construction - 0,5%, transport and communications - 5,2%, trade and public catering - 2,0%, other - 5,2%, tax payments and fees - 1,6%.
In the GRP, industry makes13.6%, construction - 7,6% (7,0%), transport and communications - 16,9% (16,1%), trade and public catering - 10.4% (10 , 9%), other services - 39,7%, taxes - 11,9% (12,1%).
3.4. Industrial potential
A positive trend of industrial production area has been reserved in 2007. The growth rate of industrial added cost amounted to 112.7% against the same period last year.
As of January 1, 2008, 6304 plant facilities operated in Tashkent, 5685 (96.1%) of which are small business entities. The number of large enterprises amounted to 162, share of which makes up 58.7% in total production volume.
Industrial output volume amounted to 2206.8 billion som (1751.4 million USD) and increased by 121.6%. Commercial production volume mostly influenced by such factors as increase of domestic needs of the population and economic entities, stabilization of financial standing and certain increase in floating means of enterprises, as well as real earnings of people.
The main industries are machinery construction and metal processing (31.8% of total production), food industry (21.6%), light industry (6.3%), chemical and petrochemical industry (6.9%), printing (5.8 %), building materials manufacture (6.2%).
Priority directions of industrial development in Tashkent:
In the textile industry:
- increase of production of fabrics of over 150 centimeter wide, mixed with man-made fibers, with special types of trimmings;
- introduction to spinning manufacture automated production lines for loosening and mixing of fibers;
- introduction to trimming manufacture periodical and continual operation equipment for decoration both cotton fabrics and man-made fabrics, as well as threads;
In the clothing industry:
- increase of cotton-made underwear, sports goods of outer light knitwear;
- equipping of the enterprises with circular fabric machine of higher-class;
- enlargement of manufacture of the extra-comfort outer knitwear;
- equipping of the enterprises with electronic control circular fabric machine;
In the wool industry:
- development of production of lightweight coat and suit fabrics for women's and men's clothing;
- development of production of wool yarn for manufacture carpets;
- development of production of dress-fabrics with various threads and printed patterns;
- enlargement of the range of woolen fabrics.
In leather and footwear industry:
- production of genuine leather with required consumer quality complex;
- enlargement of range of high-quality footwear for children and youth;
- establishment and development of resource-saving technologies on the basis of new chemical materials;
- increase the production of leather clothes;
- enlargement of the range and increase the production of materials for upholstery furniture and car interiors;
In chemical industry:
- production of Methyldetanolamin (MDA) reagents, which is used to clean the sulfur compounds and natural gas and imported from Russia and Germany;
- design the issue of ethylene glycol production;
In the pharmaceutical and fragrance industry:
- increase of production of a wide range of medicines and essential oils used in perfumes on the basis of medicinal herbs;
In the construction sector:
industrial development of sand and gravel materials.
In the food industry:
- increase in industrial processing of fruits and vegetable products;
- industrial processing and packaging of meat and dairy products; industrial development of production of cotton-seed oil, food and feed protein;
In the consumer goods industry:
technical re-equipment of enterprises on production of high-quality furniture, children's and adult outer clothing, filoselle, carpets, soap, glycerin and etc.;
In the tourism sector:
- construction and modernization of hotels.
3.5. Transportation and communication
At present, transport services for the public are offered by6 types of transport - buses, minibuses, taxis, trams, subway and trolley buses. The Association Toshshahartranshizmat include: 10 bus, 5 taxi parks, tram, trolley parks, mixed depot, 3 lines of the subway- Chilansarskiy, Yunusabad, Uzbekistanskaya (29 stations, total length - 36,1 km). Number of employees in the services account for 10, 4 thousand people.
The existing Tashkent railway connects the most distant regions of the country with the center, and also provides access to the international transport system. The international airport "Tashkent" operates in the city. Modern and comfortable Boeing 757, Boeing 767, A-310 planes of the National Airline "Uzbekistan Airways regularly make flights to more than 40 cities in the world. Thousands of tourists can visit the historical and cultural sites thanks to the service provided by the national airline. The company has 43 offices in 24 countries, and annually serves for more than 2 million people.
Telephone numbers in Tashkent are seven-digit. In order to dial a number in Tashkent from another province of the Reublic of Uzbekistan, one should dial 8 – long beep – 371 (telephone number). International format for dial-up to Tashkent: +99871 (telephone number).
Operator’s codes differ for mobile communications subscribers and are dialed in international format:
- for subscribers of the MTS Uzbekistan: +998697(subscriber’s number);
- for subscribers of the Beeline: +99890 (subscriber’s number)
- for subscribers of the Coscom (U-Cell): +99893 (subscriber’s number)
In the Republic of Uzbekistan the national regulation for foreign investments, which envisage to grant them terms not less favorable than relevant terms for investments, carried out by legal and phisical entities of the country has been established.
4. Companies with contributions of foreign investments
As of January 1, 2008, 3007 companies with foreign investments registered in Tashkent. The number of active enterprises amounted to 2.635, 1033 of them engaged on industry, 121 – on transport and communications sector, 171 – on construction, 725 – on trade and catering. There have been established 621 enterprises with contributions of foreign investments in 2007.
For foreign investment in the Republic of Uzbekistan set national treatment, would grant foreign investment terms no less favorable than the corresponding conditions for investments by individuals and legal entities of the Republic.